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Sparta: War of EmpiresSparta, im Süden der Peloponnes gelegen, war in der Antike der Hauptort der Landschaft Lakonien und des Staates der Lakedaimonier. Sein Name wird im. Sparta: War of Empires. Gefällt Mal · Personen sprechen darüber. Enter the ancient mythical world of Sparta – War of Empires™. Command your. Sparta war in diesem Bündnissystem Hegemonialmacht. Für die Bündner bestand die Pflicht zur Heeresfolge. Sie genossen dafür Schutz bei Angriffen von.
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Erotische Paarspiele seiner вReise zum Tempel des Jupiter Ammon in Sparta War Libyschen. - Zwei Könige standen in Sparta an der SpitzeDer um v. Ancient Greece. He was followed, according to tradition, by a series of kings allegorizing several traits of later-to-be Sparta and Laconia, such as the Kings MylesEurotasLacedaemon and Amyclas of Sparta. Further information: Common Ivey League elements in the God of War series. Marino and Mike Safetypay.
Pericles transformed his The Battle of Marathon in B. The battle was fought on the Marathon plain of northeastern Attica and marked the first blows of the Greco-Persian War.
With the Persians closing in on the Greek capitol, Athenian general The Athenian philosopher Plato c.
In his written dialogues he conveyed and expanded on the ideas and techniques of his teacher Socrates.
The Academy he Hercules known in Greek as Heracles or Herakles is one of the best-known heroes in Greek and Roman mythology.
His life was not easy—he endured many trials and completed many daunting tasks—but the reward for his suffering was a promise that he would live forever among the gods The classical period was an era of war and conflict—first between the Greeks and the Persians, then between the Leonidas c.
Although Leonidas lost the battle, his death at Thermopylae was seen as a heroic sacrifice because he sent most Live TV.
This Day In History. History at Home. The Spartan Military Unlike such Greek city-states as Athens, a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, Sparta was centered on a warrior culture.
Spartan Women and Marriage Spartan women had a reputation for being independent-minded, and enjoyed more freedoms and power than their counterparts throughout ancient Greece.
Damned Mummies. Spartan Boot Camp: Killing Machines. Peloponnesian War. Peloponnesian War The two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta, went to war with each other from to B.
Pericles The so-called golden age of Athenian culture flourished under the leadership of Pericles B.
Plato The Athenian philosopher Plato c. Hercules Hercules known in Greek as Heracles or Herakles is one of the best-known heroes in Greek and Roman mythology.
Xenophon, an admirer of the Spartan educational system whose sons attended the agoge , explicitly denies the sexual nature of the relationship.
Some Spartan youth apparently became members of an irregular unit known as the Krypteia. The immediate objective of this unit was to seek out and kill vulnerable helot Laconians as part of the larger program of terrorising and intimidating the helot population.
Less information is available about the education of Spartan girls, but they seem to have gone through a fairly extensive formal educational cycle, broadly similar to that of the boys but with less emphasis on military training.
In this respect, classical Sparta was unique in ancient Greece. In no other city-state did women receive any kind of formal education.
At age 20, the Spartan citizen began his membership in one of the syssitia dining messes or clubs , composed of about fifteen members each, of which every citizen was required to be a member.
The Spartans were not eligible for election for public office until the age of Only native Spartans were considered full citizens and were obliged to undergo the training as prescribed by law, as well as participate in and contribute financially to one of the syssitia.
Sparta is thought to be the first city to practice athletic nudity, and some scholars claim that it was also the first to formalize pederasty.
The agoge , the education of the ruling class, was, they claim, founded on pederastic relationships required of each citizen,  with the lover responsible for the boy's training.
However, other scholars question this interpretation. Xenophon explicitly denies it,  but not Plutarch. Spartan men remained in the active reserve until age Men were encouraged to marry at age 20 but could not live with their families until they left their active military service at age They called themselves " homoioi " equals , pointing to their common lifestyle and the discipline of the phalanx , which demanded that no soldier be superior to his comrades.
Spartans buried their battle dead on or near the battle field; corpses were not brought back on their hoplons. Thus the shield was symbolic of the individual soldier's subordination to his unit, his integral part in its success, and his solemn responsibility to his comrades in arms — messmates and friends, often close blood relations.
According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. He observed:. It is the standards of civilized men not of beasts that must be kept in mind, for it is good men not beasts who are capable of real courage.
Those like the Spartans who concentrate on the one and ignore the other in their education turn men into machines and in devoting themselves to one single aspect of city's life, end up making them inferior even in that.
One of the most persistent myths about Sparta that has no basis in fact is the notion that Spartan mothers were without feelings toward their off-spring and helped enforce a militaristic lifestyle on their sons and husbands.
In some of these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely for surviving a battle. These sayings purporting to be from Spartan women were far more likely to be of Athenian origin and designed to portray Spartan women as unnatural and so undeserving of pity.
Sparta's agriculture consisted mainly of barley, wine, cheese, grain, and figs. These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizen's kleros and were tended to by helots.
Spartan citizens were required to donate a certain amount of what they yielded from their kleros to their syssitia, or mess. These donations to the syssitia were a requirement for every Spartan citizen.
All the donated food was then redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia. The custom was to capture women for marriage The so-called 'bridesmaid' took charge of the captured girl.
She first shaved her head to the scalp, then dressed her in a man's cloak and sandals, and laid her down alone on a mattress in the dark.
The bridegroom — who was not drunk and thus not impotent, but was sober as always — first had dinner in the messes, then would slip in, undo her belt, lift her and carry her to the bed.
The husband continued to visit his wife in secret for some time after the marriage. These customs, unique to the Spartans, have been interpreted in various ways.
One of them decidedly supports the need to disguise the bride as a man in order to help the bridegroom consummate the marriage, so unaccustomed were men to women's looks at the time of their first intercourse.
The "abduction" may have served to ward off the evil eye , and the cutting of the wife's hair was perhaps part of a rite of passage that signaled her entrance into a new life.
Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world.
The higher status of females in Spartan society started at birth; unlike Athens, Spartan girls were fed the same food as their brothers.
The reasons for delaying marriage were to ensure the birth of healthy children, but the effect was to spare Spartan women the hazards and lasting health damage associated with pregnancy among adolescents.
Spartan women, better fed from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the median age for death was Unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses peplos slit up the side to allow freer movement and moved freely about the city, either walking or driving chariots.
Girls as well as boys exercised, possibly in the nude, and young women as well as young men may have participated in the Gymnopaedia "Festival of Nude Youths".
In accordance with the Spartan belief that breeding should be between the most physically fit parents, many older men allowed younger, more fit men, to impregnate their wives.
Other unmarried or childless men might even request another man's wife to bear his children if she had previously been a strong child bearer.
The Spartan population was hard to maintain due to the constant absence and loss of the men in battle and the intense physical inspection of newborns.
Spartan women were also literate and numerate, a rarity in the ancient world. Furthermore, as a result of their education and the fact that they moved freely in society engaging with their fellow male citizens, they were notorious for speaking their minds even in public.
Plato goes on to praise Spartan women's ability when it came to philosophical discussion. Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands.
Unlike women in Athens, if a Spartan woman became the heiress of her father because she had no living brothers to inherit an epikleros , the woman was not required to divorce her current spouse in order to marry her nearest paternal relative.
Many women played a significant role in the history of Sparta. Herodotus records that as a small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe.
She was later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the wax, revealing the warning.
Laconophilia is love or admiration of Sparta and its culture or constitution. Sparta was subject of considerable admiration in its day, even in rival Athens.
In ancient times "Many of the noblest and best of the Athenians always considered the Spartan state nearly as an ideal theory realised in practice.
With the revival of classical learning in Renaissance Europe , Laconophilia re-appeared, for example in the writings of Machiavelli.
The Elizabethan English constitutionalist John Aylmer compared the mixed government of Tudor England to the Spartan republic, stating that "Lacedemonia [was] the noblest and best city governed that ever was".
He commended it as a model for England. The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau contrasted Sparta favourably with Athens in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences , arguing that its austere constitution was preferable to the more sophisticated Athenian life.
Sparta was also used as a model of austere purity by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France. A German racist strain of Laconophilia was initiated by Karl Otfried Müller , who linked Spartan ideals to the supposed racial superiority of the Dorians, the ethnic sub-group of the Greeks to which the Spartans belonged.
In the 20th century, this developed into Fascist admiration of Spartan ideals. Adolf Hitler praised the Spartans, recommending in that Germany should imitate them by limiting "the number allowed to live".
He added that "The Spartans were once capable of such a wise measure The subjugation of , Helots by 6, Spartans was only possible because of the racial superiority of the Spartans.
Certain early Zionists, and particularly the founders of Kibbutz movement in Israel, were influenced by Spartan ideals, particularly in education.
Tabenkin , a founding father of the Kibbutz movement and the Palmach strikeforce, prescribed that education for warfare "should begin from the nursery", that children should from kindergarten be taken to "spend nights in the mountains and valleys".
In modern times, the adjective "spartan" means simple, frugal, avoiding luxury and comfort. Sparta also features prominently in modern popular culture , most famously the Battle of Thermopylae see Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient Greek city-state. For modern-day Sparta, see Sparta, Laconia.
For other uses, see Sparta disambiguation. For other uses, see Spartan disambiguation. City-state in ancient Greece.
The letter lambda was used by the Spartan army as a symbol of Lacedaemon. Ephors Gerousia. Main article: Menelaion.
Main article: History of Sparta. Main article: Spartan Constitution. Main article: Helots. Main article: Perioeci. Main article: Agoge.
Main articles: Spartan army and Spartiate. Main article: Women in ancient Sparta. Main article: Laconophilia. The metics, i. There an amphitheatre was built in the 3rd century AD to observe the ritual whipping of Spartan youths.
History of western philosophy. Word study tool of Ancient languages. University of Oslo. In Bakker, Egbert J.
A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek.
Leiden, Boston: Brill. Archived from the original on Retrieved Lefkowitz, Mary R. Black Athena Revisited. The University of North Carolina Press.
Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. A Dictionary of Ancient Geography [etc.
Robinson [etc. Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon in Greek. Jena: Frederick Mauk. Contributions toward a History of Arabico-Gothic Culture.
In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press. David Cartwright, p. Moreover, the people in assembly were the final power.
Corinth and Thebes proposed that Athens be leveled and the land be turned into a pasture for sheep. Agis, supported by Lysander, also recommended the destruction of the city.
The assembly refused, stating that they would not destroy a city that had served Greece so well in the past, alluding to Athens' contribution to the defeat of the Persians.
Instead the Athenians were offered terms of unconditional surrender: the long walls must be dismantled, Athens must withdraw from all states of the Delian League and Athenian exiles must be allowed to return.
The Athenians could keep their own land. The returning delegates found the population of Athens starving to death. The surrender was accepted in assembly in April, , 27 years after the start of the war, with little opposition.
A few weeks later Lysander arrived with a Spartan garrison. They began to tear down the walls to the tune of pipes played by young female pipers.
Lysander reported to the ephors that "Athens is taken. Some modern historians have proposed a less altruistic reason for the Spartans' mercy—the need for a counterweight to Thebes  —though Anton Powell sees this as an excess of hindsight.
It is doubtful that the Spartans could have predicted that it would be Thebes that would someday pose a serious threat, later defeating the Spartans at the Battle of Leuctra.
Lysander's political opponents may have defended Athens not out of gratitude, but out of fear of making Lysander too powerful. In the spring of BC, the terms of surrender required the Athenians to tear down the long walls between the city and the port of Piraeus.
When internal dissent prevented the Athenians from restoring a government Lysander dissolved the democracy and set up a government of 30 oligarchs that would come to be known as the Thirty.
These were pro-Spartan men. Originally voted into power by the Assembly with a mandate to codify the laws, they immediately requested the assistance of the Spartan garrison to arrest their enemies.
The disquiet of Sparta's allies in the Peloponnesian League can be seen in the defiance of Boeotia , Elis and Corinth in offering refuge to those who opposed the rule of the Thirty.
Lysander departed Athens to establish decarchies, governing boards of 10 men, elsewhere in the former Athenian Empire, leaving the Spartan garrison under the command of the Thirty.
Taking advantage of a general anti-Spartan backlash and a change of regime in Boeotia to an anti-Spartan government, the exiles and non-Athenian supporters who were promised citizenship launched an attack from Boeotia on Athens under Thrasybulus and in the Battle of Phyle followed by the Battle of Munichia and the Battle of Piraeus defeated the Athenian supporters of the Thirty with the Spartan garrison regaining partial control of Athens.
They set up a decarchy. Athens was on the brink of civil war. Both sides sent delegates to present their case before King Pausanias.
The Thirty were heard first. They complained that Piraeus was being occupied by a Boeotian puppet government. Pausanias immediately appointed Lysander harmost governor , which required the assent of the ephors , and ordered him to Sparta with his brother, who had been made navarch over 40 ships.
They were to put down the rebellion and expel the foreigners. After the Ten had been fully heard, Pausanias, obtaining the assent of three out of five ephors, went himself to Athens with a force including men from all the allies except the suspect Boeotia and Corinth.
He met and superseded Lysander on the road. A battle ensued against Thrasybulus, whose forces killed two Spartan polemarchs but were driven at last into a marsh and trapped there.
Pausanias broke off. He set up the board of 15 peace commissioners that had been sent with him by the Spartan assembly and invited both sides to a conference.
The final reconciliation restored democracy to Athens. The Thirty held Eleusis, as they had previously massacred the entire population. It was made independent of Athens as a refuge for supporters of the Thirty.
A general amnesty was declared. The Spartans ended their occupation. The former oligarchs repudiated the peace.
After failure to raise assistance for their cause among the other states of Greece, they attempted a coup. Faced with the new Athenian state at overwhelming odds they were lured into a conference, seized and executed.
Eleusis reverted to Athens. Meanwhile, Lysander, who had been recalled to Sparta after his relief by Pausanias, with the assistance of King Agis the second king charged Pausanias with being too lenient with the Athenians.
Not only was he acquitted by an overwhelming majority of the jurors except for the supporters of Agis including all five ephors, but the Spartan government repudiated all the decarchs that had been established by Lysander in former states of the Athenian Empire and ordered the former governments restored.
Sparta's close relationship with Cyrus the Younger continued when she gave covert support to his attempt to seize the Persian throne. After Cyrus was killed at the Battle of Cunaxa , Sparta briefly attempted to be conciliatory towards Artaxerxes , the Persian king.
In late BC, however, Sparta decided to answer an appeal of several Ionian cities and sent an expedition to Anatolia. Though Persian rule meant to the cities of mainland Asia, the payment of tribute, this seems to have been considered a lesser evil than Spartan rule.
However, these inducements served mainly as encouragement to those who were already resentful of Sparta. In the event, it was Sparta who made the first aggressive move using, as a pretext, Boeotia's support for her ally Locris against Sparta's ally Phocis.
An army under Lysander and Pausanias was despatched. As Pausanias was somewhat lukewarm to the whole enterprise, Lysander went on ahead.
When Pausanias arrived rather than avenge the defeat he simply sought a truce to bury the bodies. For this Pausanias was prosecuted, this time successfully and went into exile.
At the Battle of Coronea , Agesilaus I , the new king of Sparta, had slightly the better of the Boeotians and at Corinth, the Spartans maintained their position, yet they felt it necessary to rid themselves of Persian hostility and if possible use Persian power to strengthen their own position at home: they therefore concluded with Artaxerxes II the humiliating Peace of Antalcidas in BC, by which they surrendered to the Great King of the Greek cities of the Asia Minor coast and of Cyprus , and stipulated for the autonomy of all other Greek cities.
Finally, Sparta and Persia were given the right to make war on those who did not respect the terms of the treaty. The Boeotian League was broken up on the one hand while the Spartan dominated Peloponnesian League was excepted.
Further, Sparta did not consider that autonomy included the right of a city to choose democracy over Sparta's preferred form of government.
After several years of fighting Olynthus was defeated and the cities of the Chalkidice were enrolled into the Peloponnesian League.
The real beneficiary of this conflict was Macedon , though Paul Cartledge considers it to be indulging in hindsight, to blame Sparta for enabling the rise of Philip II.
The alliance was initially backed by Persia, whose lands in Anatolia had been invaded by Sparta and which feared further Spartan expansion into Asia.
The event severely damaged Sparta's naval power but did not end its aspirations of invading further into Persia, until Conon the Athenian ravaged the Spartan coastline and provoked the old Spartan fear of a helot revolt.
After a few more years of fighting in BC, the Peace of Antalcidas was established, according to which all Greek cities of Ionia would return to Persian control, and Persia's Asian border would be free of the Spartan threat.
The leader of the anti-Spartan faction was executed after a show trial, and a narrow clique of pro-Spartan partisans was placed in power in Thebes, and other Boeotian cities.
It was a flagrant breach of the Peace of Antalcidas. Sparta started this war with the strategic initiative, however, Sparta failed to achieve its aims.
Again the Thebans refused to renounce their Boeotian hegemony, and the Spartan's sent a force under King Cleombrotus in an attempt to enforce Theban acceptance.
When the Thebans gave battle at Leuctra , it was more out of brave despair than hope. As Spartan citizenship was inherited by blood, Sparta now increasingly faced a helot population that vastly outnumbered its citizens.
The alarming decline of Spartan citizens was commented on by Aristotle , who viewed it as a sudden event. Most likely, this was the result of steady shifting of wealth among the citizen body, which was simply not as obvious until laws were passed allowing the citizens to give away their land plots.
Sparta never fully recovered from the losses that it suffered at Leuctra in BC and the subsequent helot revolts. Nonetheless, it was able to continue as a regional power for over two centuries.
By the winter of late BC, King Agesilaus took the field, not against Thebes, but in an attempt to preserve at least a toehold of influence for Sparta in Arkadia.
This backfired when, in response, the Arkadians sent an appeal for help to Boeotia. Boeotia responded by sending a large army, led by Epaminondas , which first marched on Sparta itself and then moved to Messenia where the helots had already rebelled.
Epaminondas made that rebellion permanent by fortifying the city of Messene. The final showdown was in BC, by which time several of Boetia's former allies, such as Mantinea and Elis , had joined Sparta.
Athens also fought with Sparta. The resulting Battle of Mantinea was won by Boetia and her allies but in the moment of victory, Epaminondas was killed.
Only Sparta itself refused because it would not accept the independence of Messenia. Sparta had neither the men nor the money to recover her lost position, and the continued existence on her borders of an independent Messenia and Arcadia kept her in constant fear for her own safety.
She did, indeed, join with Athens and Achaea in BC to prevent Philip II of Macedon passing Thermopylae and entering Phocis , but beyond this, she took no part in the struggle of Greece with the new power which had sprung up on her northern borders.
The final showdown saw Philip fighting Athens and Thebes at Chaeronea. Sparta was pinned down at home by Macedonian allies such as Messene and Argos and took no part.
Sparta alone refused to join Philip's "Corinthian League" but Philip engineered the transfer of certain border districts to the neighbouring states of Argos, Arcadia and Messenia.
A large Macedonian army under general Antipater marched to its relief and defeated the Spartan-led force in a pitched battle.
On his knees, the Spartan king slew several enemy soldiers before being finally killed by a javelin. The memory of this defeat was still fresh in Spartan minds when the general revolt against Macedonian rule known as the Lamian War broke out — hence Sparta stayed neutral.
Even during its decline, Sparta never forgot its claims on being the "defender of Hellenism" and its Laconic wit.
When Philip created the league of the Greeks on the pretext of unifying Greece against Persia, the Spartans chose not to join—they had no interest in joining a pan-Greek expedition if it was not under Spartan leadership.
Thus, upon the conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great sent to Athens suits of Persian armour with the following inscription " Alexander, son of Philip, and all the Greeks except the Spartans , give these offerings taken from the foreigners who live in Asia [emphasis added] ".
Had Demetrius not decided to turn his attention to Macedonia the city would have fallen. They somewhat pulled the moral high ground from under themselves, by looting the area.
It was at this point that the Aetolians caught them and defeated them. Though Aetolia was primarily concerned with confining Achaea, because the cities concerned were hostile to Sparta, Aetolia needed to demonstrate her anti-Spartan credentials.
During the 3rd century BC, a social crisis slowly emerged: wealth had become concentrated amongst about families  and the number of equals who had always formed the backbone of the Spartan army had fallen to less than a tenth of its strong highpoint in the 7th century BC.
His program combined debt cancellation and land reform. Opposition from King Leonidas was removed when he was deposed on somewhat dubious grounds.
However, his opponents exploited a period when Agis IV was absent from Sparta and, on his return he was subjected to a travesty of a trial.
Aratus, who led the Achaean League forces, adopted a very cautious strategy, despite having 20, to Cleomenes men. Cleomenes was faced with obstruction from the Ephors which probably reflected a general lack of enthusiasm amongst the citizens of Sparta.
The ephorate was abolished — indeed four out of five of them had been killed during Cleomenes' seizure of power. Cleomenes gave to Sphaerus , his stoic advisor, the task of restoring the old severe training and simple life.
Historian Peter Green comments that giving such a responsibility to a non-Spartan was a telling indication of the extent that Sparta had lost her Lycurgian traditions.
For others, especially among the poor, Cleomenes inspired hope. This hope was quickly dashed when Cleomenes started taking cities and it became obvious that social reform outside Sparta was the last thing on his mind.
Cleomenes' reforms had as their aim, the restoration of Spartan power. Initially Cleomenes was successful, taking cities that had until then been part of the Achaean League  and winning the financial backing of Egypt.
With Egypt deciding to cut financial aid Cleomenes decided to risk all on one battle. The ephors were restored, whilst the kingship was suspended.
At the beginning of the Social War in BC, envoys from Achaea unsuccessfully attempted to persuade Sparta to take the field against Aetolia. Sparta then immediately entered the war on the side of Aetolia.
The sources on Nabis , who took power in BC, are so uniformly hostile that it is impossible today to judge the truth of the accusation against him — that his reforms were undertaken only to serve Nabis' interests.
Were we to trust the accounts given by Polybius and Livy , we would dismiss him little better than a bandit chieftain, holding Sparta by means of extreme cruelty and oppression and using mercenary troops to a large extent in his wars.
The historian W. Forest is willing to take these accusations at face value including that he murdered his ward, and participated in state sponsored piracy and brigandage — but not the self-interested motives ascribed to him.
He sees him as a ruthless version of Cleomenes, sincerely attempting to solve Sparta's social crisis. It was this point that Achaea switched her alliance with Macedon to support Rome.
As Achaea was Sparta's main rival, Nabis leaned towards Macedonia. It was getting increasingly difficult for Macedonia to hold Argos , so Philip V of Macedon decided to give Argos to Sparta which increased tension with the Achaean League.
Nonetheless, he was careful not to violate the letter of his alliance with Rome. Though the territory under his control now consisted only of the city of Sparta and its immediate environs, Nabis still hoped to regain his former power.
After ravaging the surrounding countryside, Philopoemen returned home. Within a few months, Nabis appealed to the Aetolian League to send troops so that he might protect his territory against the Romans and the Achaean League.
Once there, he compelled the Spartans to join the Achaean League ending their independence. Subsequently, Sparta become a free city in the Roman sense, some of the institutions of Lycurgus were restored  and the city became a tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic Spartan customs.
After BC, sources for Spartan history are somewhat fragmentary. A passage in Suetonius reveals that the Spartans were clients of the powerful patrician clan of the Claudii.
During the late 1st century BC and much of the 1st century AD Sparta was dominated by the powerful family of the Euryclids which acted something like a "client-dynasty" for the Romans.
During the 2nd century AD a 12 kilometers long aqueduct was built. The Romans fielded Spartan auxiliary troops in their wars against the Parthians under the emperors Lucius Verus and Caracalla.
In AD, Alaric sacked Sparta and, though it was rebuilt, the revived city was much smaller than before. Some settlement by Proto-Slavic tribes occurred around this time.
The Slavs occupied most of the Peloponnese, as evidenced by Slavic toponyms, with the exception of the eastern coast, which remained in Byzantine hands.
The latter was included in the thema of Hellas , established by Justinian II ca. Under Nikephoros I , following a Slavic revolt and attack on Patras , a determined Hellenization process was carried out.
According to the not always reliable Chronicle of Monemvasia , in the Byzantine governor of Corinth went to war with the Slavs, exterminated them, and allowed the original inhabitants to claim their own lands.
They regained control of the city of Patras and the peninsula was re-settled with Greeks. The entire peninsula was formed into the new thema of Peloponnesos , with its capital at Corinth.
There was also continuity of the Peloponnesian Greek population. Fine considers it is unlikely that a large number of people could have easily been transplanted into Greece in the 9th century; this suggests that many Greeks had remained in the territory and continued to speak Greek throughout the period of Slavic occupation.
According to Byzantine sources, the Mani Peninsula in southern Laconian remained pagan until well into the 10th century. In his De administrando imperio , Emperor Constantine Porphyrogennetos also claims that the Maniots retained autonomy during the Slavic invasion, and that they descend from the ancient Greeks.